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中国水危机——制度分析与对策
中国水危机——制度分析与对策
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水危机是指由于人类开发利用水资源超过水资源与水环境承载能力,积累了许多导致水资源供给长期不能够满足人类生存、社会进步和经济发展的需求或水生态系统被严重破坏(难以恢复)的致灾因子,这些致灾因子进一步演变会引发供水严重不足、水生态系统崩溃等重大灾害,造成国家根本利益重大损失,危害水安全。 庞大的人口所带来的贫乏的人均水资源量,相对落后的国民素质和科学技术,相对短缺的资金、相对不合理的生产力布局和产业结构,使得以水资源短缺和水生态环境恶化为特征的水危机成为制约当代中国经济社会发展的瓶颈。 从哲学的角度讲,水安全与水危机都是人类开发利用水资源过程中出现的两种临界状态,体现的是人与水相处的和谐程度。通常情况下,人与水的关系总是在和谐与不和谐之间不断地转化。当人与水和谐相处,人与水的关系就处于安全状态;当人与水相处不和谐或人类生产活动严重干扰了水生态系统,破坏了水资源的自然循环过程,人与水的关系就处于不安全状态;当人与水的关系长期处于严重的、紧张的状态,人与水的关系就会演化成危机状态。如不尽快缓解潜在的致灾因子,水危机将继续演变成灾害,造成国家根本利益的严重损害,危及水安全。 从不同的角度剖析水危机的成因,有不同的结论。如从自然科学的角度分析水危机的成因,可以认为最基本的制约因素是中国的基本地貌结构;而从水危机所引发灾害的本质属性上分析水危机的成因,自然气候突变和人类不当活动都会产生并潜伏致灾因子,引发水危机;从经济分析的角度看,水危机主要是一个经济“外部性”问题;从社会学的角度分析,养活众多的人口造成的耕地紧缺和大量的人类社会活动及降水时空分布的不均衡是形成水危机的根本原因等。在分析了水危机形成机理和中国政府治理水危机的实践过程后认为:文化与制度对水危机的形成和治理具有根本的影响。以环境伦理道德失范、经济主体价值观迷失、缺乏全民的节水、水危机意识为主要特征的“软规则”缺失,和以多部门、割裂的水行政管理体制、缺乏权威的流域管理和流域治理的水资源管理体制、抑制市场作用的水资源、水环境容量资源配置机制为主要特征的“硬规则”缺陷是中国水危机产生和愈演愈烈的根源。 中国水危机的治本之策是从以下十个方面推进共同的变革、共同的治理。 (1)以科学发展观为指引,在哲学层面牢固树立人与自然和谐相处的可持续发展观,推进环境文化复兴和价值重铸,弥补“软规则”的缺陷。 (2)在宏观上整合行政资源,积极推进国家水资源管理体制变革,建立全国水资源管理委员会。 (3)在中观层面推进流域管理体制变革,建立有利于水资源、水环境容量资源统一管理的流域自主管理新体制。 (4)在微观层面积极创造条件,建立地方水资源管理委员会,推进区域水务管理一体化。 (5)以市场机制为手段,全面建设节水型社会。 (6)建立以水权制度为核心的水资源配置机制,积极发挥市场机制对水资源优化配置的重要作用,提高水资源配置的效率与效益。 (7)建立以排污权交易制度为核心的水环境容量资源配置机制,积极发挥市场机制对水环境容量资源优化配置的重要作用,提高水环境容量资源配置的效率与效益。 (8)以资源利用准入为核心,严格政府管制。 (9)推进以发展循环经济;建立生态补偿机制和巡视弹劾制度;创新干部绩效考核制度为主要内容的公共政策变革。 (10)构建水危机预警系统与水资源安全储备体系相结合的水危机战略防御体系。 Water crisis occurs when water resources are overdeveloped by man. On this situation, disaster factors are accumulated together to make water supply fail to meet the demands of peoples life and social and economic development, or to bring about severe or irrecoverable damage to the water ecological system. The deterioration of tendency factors lead to further serious disasters like severe water supply shortage or collapse of water ecological system, which could consequently threaten both a nation's fundamental interests and its water security. Accompanying with the huge population of China are the problems like scarcity of per capital water resources, relatively low moral standards and technology level, shortage of funds, irrational productivity layout and industrial structure. As a result, water crisis featuring water shortage and water environment deterioration has become the bottleneck of social and economic development for China at present stage. In the term of philosophical implication, water security and water crisis are two critical states, reflecting the extent of harmony between water and man. In most circumstances, the relationship between water and people keeps changing:Once man and water are in harmonious coexistence, the relationship between them is safe and sound. While the two parties fail to keep harmony or the people's activities seriously damage water ecological system, the natural water circle will be broken down, which then lead the relationship between man and water to an insecure position. When such relationship suffers long-term intension, the crisis becomes then unavoidable. More seriously, if potential disaster factors can not be removed in a timely manner, the crisis evolves into disasters, which eventually brings great disaster to the nations fundamental interests and water security. Different conclusions could be drawn when analyzing the reasons of water crisis from different perspectives. For example, proceeding from the view of natural science, we may conclude that the geographic layout of China is the main reason for water crisis. Analyzing the nature of disasters caused, we may find that dramatic climate change and improper human activities generate potential disaster factors that arouse water crisis. From the economic perspective, water crisis is due to the existence of negative externalities. From the sociological perspective, the shortage of farmland to support huge population and the spatio-temporal uneven distribution of rainfall are the fundamental reason for water crisis. Based on my observations to structural reasons for water crisis and Chinese governments practice to control crisis, I argue that cultural and institutional elements impose fundamental impacts to the formation and solution of water crisis. Water crisis in China is attributed to both the absence of “soft regulations” featuring lack of environmental ethics, lost of proper economic axiology, insufficient sense of water saving and so on, and the absence of “hard regulation” characterized with fragment water administration system and inefficient water resource management agencies. The following ten-point proposal is hereby put forward to promote reform and management, which in turn serves as the fundamental ways to tackle water crisis: 1.In the light of scientific approach of development, establish the concept of sustainable development for harmonious coexistence between man and nature so as to promote the revitalization of environmental culture and values and to remedy the absence of “soft regulation”. 2.Integrate administrative resources on a macro level. Promote the institutional reform of water resource management, and establish National Water Resources Administration Commission. 3.Promote system restructuring of river basin management on the middle level. Establish a new autonomic management mechanism to benefit integrated water resource use and water resources administration. 4.Establish local Water Resources Commissions and promote regional integrated water affairs management on the micro level. 5.Build a water-saving society through market mechanism. 6.Establish the water allocation mechanism based on water rights, and introduce market power into the resource allocation process so as to improve the efficiency and results of water resources. 7.Establish the pollution rights transaction mechanism and bring it into the resource allocation process so as to improve the efficiency and results of capacity sharing of water resources. 8.Strengthen resource access system and enhance government regulation. 9.Perfect public policies through promoting recycle economy and stepping up efforts to build ecological compensation system, inspection and impeachment system, and performance assessment scheme. 10.Construct a strategic water crisis defense system that comprises early warning and water security reserves systems.

目录

摘要5

引言 全球的危机 严峻的挑战14

第一章 我们面临的水危机18

第一节 水安全与水危机:概念、内涵、相互关系19第二节 水资源承载能力不堪重负35第三节 水环境承载能力面临重大挑战53

第二章 水危机分析的理论基础86

第一节 “经济人”与水资源特性的理论假定87第二节 经济外部性与制度分析框架95第三节 治水制度的绩效评价原则与分析模型116

第三章 文化对治水实践的贡献与影响136

第一节 文化与中华古代环境文化136第二节 传统文化对治水实践的贡献与影响142第三节 西方工业文明对中国治水实践的影响149

第四章 “硬规则”缺陷与水危机164

第一节 水行政管理体制缺陷与水危机164第二节 水资源配置机制缺陷与用水低效率198第三节 水污染治理机制缺陷与水污染治理低效207

第五章 “软规则”缺陷与水危机220

第一节 环境伦理道德失范与水危机222第二节 经济主体价值观的转变与水危机227第三节 节水意识缺失与水危机237

第六章 新时期的治道变革:挑战水危机的实践与启示240

第一节 治水变革的背景241第二节 新时期治水变革的思路与方略259第三节 新时期治水思路的实践探索261第四节 新时期治水变革的启示277

第七章 共同的变革,共同的治理286

第一节 推进观念更新与体制变革286第二节 推进政府管制与市场机制创新304第三节 推进公共政策变革与创新322

参考文献333

后记339

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